Asynclitism means asymmetrical. Its when a baby’s head is tipped towards one shoulder. The tipped head has a harder time passing through the narrow part of the pelvis; the ishial spines. Labor becomes longer, and sometimes baby doesn't fit out the pelvis...Happily, we have techniques for this problem.
Early in labor the baby’s head enters the brim of the pelvis in asynclitism –tipped- to get around the protruding base of the spine (sacral promontory).
When the nurse checks the cervix at 3 cm she’ll notice that the baby’s head is closer to the mother’s front (usually). There is space between the baby’s head and the mother’s sacrum in back. We are reassured, as long as the forehead doesn't overlap the pubic bone (in which case we Help The Baby Engage in Labor).
Normally, the head has usually filled in the space evenly by 4-5 cm. The head has become symmetrical inside the pelvic canal. The head is synclitic.
Read birth stories about asynclitic labors at the end of this article.
Discovering asynclitism in labor
The nurse, doctor, or midwife will notice the asynclitism during a vaginal exam. The cervix will be thicker on one side and thinner on the other side. (Thicker in front is normal, in my experience and I don't worry to much about that.) The baby's head will seem a little lower and closer to the bones on the thin side. The baby's head will seem to angle away, deeper into the pelvis and less close to the mother's bones on the thick side. The nurse will have to think about it, so ask her to check for this before or during the vaginal exam.
Labor with an asynclitic baby
If the bag of water releases suddenly with a strong contraction there is a possibility that the baby's head comes down to the mid pelvis while still asynclitic. Asynclitism may be caused by a twist in the lower uterine segment causing the baby to twist to fit the area. More typically, the pelvic floor is asymmetrical and so the head gets tipped as it is pressed down with strong contractions on the uneven edges of the opening to the pelvic floor.
Labor is often longer.
Early in labor, before 3 cm, this is normal and desired.
Asynclitism becomes a problem when the head is still tipped at and after 5 cm dilation.
Dilation often takes longer and there can be a delay in progress at about 8-9 cm or 9 1/2 centimeters for many hours.
A mother may have significant pain in one hip. Hip pain may also be from one of the baby's arms being up along the head or a spasm in the muscles within the broad ligament.
Contractions are often strong throughout, unlike the ebb and surge of a posterior labor. Though that can happen too.
Longer second stages
It not unusual for second stage to last 3-6 hours when the head is tipped. I’ve also attended first time mothers with second stages 2 and 3 times longer than this.
The baby can develop a caput. This doesn't necessarily mean that the baby won't fit. Often, really often, the baby requires the mother to change position often (maternal positioning) to open the pelvis.
What to do?
- Do the Pelvic Floor Release.(Sidelying release)
- Then do the lunge (the lunge will work better after the pelvic floor / sidelying release)
- Doing the Dangle should follow the Pelvic Floor Release and the lunge.
- Sometimes resting and not pushing at all through 2-5 contractions helps molding. Rest in a Rest Smart position.
- Vertical positions, such as standing and slightly bending the knees during a surge
- Stand with one foot on a stool
- Sit on the toilet with one foot on a stool and the other foot on the floor
- Pulling on a towel or rebozo during pushing contractions
- "Shake the apple tree" by shaking the mother's buttocks in the same speed you would shake a branch to make a ripe apple fall
- Keep moving during a contraction (its ok to rest, but don't "freeze" your body with tension)
Eating small amounts and drinking warm honey tea helps keep labor contractions strong enough to keep moving the baby.
Lying down in one position is not likely to allow the baby to descend further downward. Very specific and persistent techniques are often necessary.
As long as we are talking about what to do, please look into craniosacral therapy and pediatric chiropractic for baby after birth. They should know the special technques for babies. This can be very helpful with the breastfeeding latch.
Medically assisted birth
Sometimes the doctor will want to use a vacuum (ventouse) or forceps during a contraction to pull the head out. There are some risks, of course, but if the head is low enough, attempting to continue with a vaginal birth avoids the risks of major surgery to the woman herself.
Sometimes, a birthing woman simply needs more time to let baby come down. An attendant with the unique skills of supporting the long labor naturally is becoming a rare bird. More than just postponing a cesarean, skills for natural labor includes knowing how to help a mother continue labor without physical or emotional trauma. Of course, one of those skills is knowing when enough is enough. A cesarean is meant to be a life saver, not a life style.
Supporting the asynclitic labor
There is a dance the midwife does between forces of inertia and forces of birth. When to eat, when to rest and when to work the pelvis are vitally important when labor is long and the second stage even longer.
A doula, or two, can mean the difference between a vaginal birth and surgery. Her talents in emotional support may find themselves calming the nurses and providers.
The mother needs to want to continue the birth. After a particularly difficult birth we want to know that she is joyous and not second guessing herself. The birth team may need to get together to discuss the birth.
In labor, if the mother decides enough is enough, the support team must seriously consider their options for finishing the birth. With a birth team that works well together and a willing mother, many mothers will perservere to finish the birth themselves. They will feel proud and may a bit confused as to why their labor was so difficult. What we don’t want is to have the mother feel like she was suffering. Listen to the mother and let her lead. Give encouragement while leaving an opening for her to lay down her hand.
The story, The Long Labor That Wasn’t is about an asynclitic posterior birth. There is another story of an asynclitic posterior labor at the end of the article called Pelvic Floor Release. Both babies in these stories had their chins extended. Both babies were born at home in good health. Asynclitism might repeat in a future birth, but often it does not.
Here's another story of a doula introducing techniques for asynclitism during a hospital birth in which the mom used epidural anesthesia. The doula was inspired to write a reference letter for Gail: "Help for an asynclitic birth wins doula's praise- a reference letter"